Karnak Temples Complex
The Karnak Temple Complex, world-famous as Karnak, is an enormous collection of temple ruins, chapel places, huge columns and other buildings.
It is located 3 km from Luxor, and its name in ancient Egypt was Ipet-isut (“the most chosen place”), which is the main place of worship for the Theban Triad, whose head was Amun, in the city of Thebes built-in Al Sorouh. The complex takes its current name from the nearby village that surrounds it, Karnak.
It is considered one of the distinctive signs of Luxor, as each successive king was trying to make his temple the most wonderful to distinguish it from his predecessor, so the temples of Karnak turned into a complete guide and collection showing the stages of the development of ancient Egyptian art and distinctive Egyptian architecture.
The Karnak Temple is open daily from 7 am to 5 pm and features charming sound and light shows every evening, which is a great way to discover the Karnak Temples.
Major temples
The first thing in this temple is the anchorage: it is a high berth with a square base for the sacred boat, and it is connected between the marina and the Nile.
The façade of the temple is represented by the first edifice, which dates back to the reign of King Naqtanpo I of the Thirtieth Dynasty. It is built of sandstone and has two towers, and in the middle of the two towers is an entrance with a gate height of 26 meters.
There is an open courtyard in this temple, the ceremonial courtyard with an area of ​​eight thousand square meters and dates back to the era of the Twenty-second Dynasty. Its tribal and nautical sides were decorated with bouquets whose capitals bear rounded capitals in the form of papyrus buds, and in front of them are ram statues of Ramses III.
Statues of rams
This means that these statues had the head of a ram, and the body of a lion touched them. That is why the path between these standing statues was called the Road of Rams, and it is 52 meters long and 12 meters wide.
Ramses III Temple
The Temple of Ramses III is located on the southern side of the courtyard. It was built by King Ramses II to rest the sacred boats and is 52 meters long. It is crowned by an edifice preceded by two statues of the king. The edifice is followed by a rectangular, exposed courtyard on either side of it, two rows of sixteen eight columns on each side and a statue of the king in front of each column. The hall of these columns is the largest pillar hall in the world, with an area of ​​six thousand square meters, leading to it by an entrance rebuilt by Ptolemy III and IV, and this hall is the greatest of religious buildings constructed as its roof bears 134 sandstone columns in sixteen rows.
There are two rows of twelve cylindrical columns in the middle with a crown in the shape of an open papyrus flower, and the height of the column is 22.40 meters. As for the side columns, which number 122 columns in fourteen rows, their crowns are like papyrus buds, and the height is 14.75 meters.
Holy of Holies
Thutmose III dismantled the cabin of Hatshepsut and constructed in its place a cabin for him in the Second Annals Hall, but it was destroyed.
Ceremonial foyer
It is unique in its architecture as it represents the royal tent that was erected in wars.
Its length is 43.2 meters, and its width is 15.6 meters. There are two rows of high circular columns in each row in the middle, ten columns with a bell-like crown that opens it from the bottom and is round at the top and on the lobby of the hall are 32 columns.
Amun Park
It is a rectangular foyer whose ceiling bears four polygonal papyrus columns in one row. All kinds of exotic plants and beautiful flowers brought by the Aton are recorded on its walls.
Holy lake
It was built by Thutmose III, 80 meters long and 40 meters wide, and was surrounded by a wall. There is a measure of the Nile on its northern and southern sides, with two entrances on the eastern side and the western side, each with stone stairs.
The temple of the goddess Mut
Amenhotep III established it, then added to it by some kings until the Baltic era.
It includes two temples in the northeastern corner of the wall dedicated to the god “Khonsu Baghers” and dates back to the Eighteenth Dynasty. It was restored by Naqanabu from the Thirtieth Dynasty, with additions from the Ptolemaic period.
And the second is from the southern corner and dates back to the era of Ramses III.
Montu Temple
This site is dedicated to Ibn Mut Amun-Ra, Montu, the god of war in the Theban Triad. The site is located near the north of the Amun-Ra complex, occupies a smaller area, and is not open to the public.
Temple of the goddess Ipet
Ptolemy VIII, “George II built it”, and the Ptolemaic kings participated in it. It is located to the west of the temple of “Khonsu” and is dedicated to the goddess Ivet in the form of a hippopotamus. Closets
The open museum
It is located north of the main temple. A door leading to the north of the courtyard of the Popstes, another in the middle of the northern wall in the Hall of the Great Columns, is displayed in it the stones of the red cabin of Queen Hatshepsut, amounting to about two-thirds of the stones of the cabin, totalling 300 pieces.