The story of the Egyptian Museum is wonderful:
The Egyptian Museum has a long story closely related to the search for ancient antiquities, a story that began in the mid-eighteenth century, and it was undoubtedly sad. We still regret what happened in its distant past, and our regret is intense when we note that Egypt during this past was Handcuffed.
We all know the various myths that prevailed in the world about Egyptian antiquities and ancient Egyptian history. We know that the entire ancient East was immersed in complete darkness full of secrets and wonders. People only knew what some Greek and Roman historians wrote, such as Herodotus, Diodore Sicilian and Strabon, and what he narrated. Torah stories. The writings of the Greek historians were distorted, and we now know what grave errors and various inaccuracies they contained. We also know that they sometimes occurred due to misunderstanding, and at other times from ignorance of the sources from which their owners drew their information, but these books remained the only sources seized by those who wanted knowledge and knowledge.
Two-handled vessels and Greek inscriptions
Perhaps the first archaeological excavations and excavations in modern times were those that took place outside the scope of the Near East, that is, in the ruins of the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in Italy in the middle of the eighteenth century, and in April of 1748 specifically, and these archaeological discoveries, in particular, were the first spark that lit In the hearts of people, there is a spark of love to learn about the civilizations of peoples in the early ages of human history.
People in Europe went crazy with the archaeological artefacts that appeared in Pompeii. Its news overshadowed all other news, and a strange race began between the governments of Europe aimed at collecting ancient antiquities and stacking them in museums, and not only governments participated in this race, but quite a few The wealthy spend their money on collecting antiques from everywhere. The years that followed the discovery of the antiquities of Pompeii were the darkest and most horrific periods that passed on the effects of the nations of the Near East, as it was a period of looting, piracy and sabotage. The excavator aimed only to seize the precious artefacts, unconcerned with how they were found and without any interest in studying, even if Superficial to the conditions of the place in which he works, or with ordinary waste that can help history or alert to observations that follow the development of the civilization of its owners.
There is no doubt that the lights did not shine on Egypt. It became a destination for researchers and scholars who excavated only since the twenty-four parts of the book “Description of Egypt” appeared, and that was during the four years from 1809 to 1813. The great scientific expedition that accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte to Egypt At that time, it consisted of an official scientific association called the Institut d’Egypte, which is still carrying out its excellent scientific activity under the name “The Egyptian Scientific Institute.” The book “Description of Egypt” is considered the first pillar on which Egyptian studies were based and a record of the manifestations of The Egyptian civilization that contemporary authored in the early nineteenth century.
The authorship of this book was accompanied by another incident that had the greatest impact in starting a massive wave of research and investigation to reveal the civilization of the ancient Egyptians, by which I mean the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799, and what accompanied this discovery of researchers rushing to read the hieroglyphic text in it, and the French Champollion succeeded in reaching He indicates that hieroglyphs consist of different signs, each of which has a specific phonetic value.
In the first quarter of the nineteenth century, the Italian “Rosellini” recorded inscriptions and drawings, described the existing monuments in the country’s length and width, and printed them in a book. The German “Richard Lipsius” followed him. He did the same work and added that he conducted many excavations in the cemeteries of Giza, Saqqara and Egypt Central and published it all in a huge book.
If France, Italy and Germany published these three books, if they indicate anything, they indicate intense competition, rather the scientific race to reach the facts about Egypt’s history and civilization, and this was undoubtedly a blessed movement that increased people’s interest in Egypt and its antiquities. Egypt’s excavation and excavation work were not good, but its good was much less than its evil. The reason for this is that many adventurers outsiders to science and its people found in the search for antiquities a rewarding profession, which can reach them to great wealth very quickly, and it is not surprising that Therefore, the museums of Europe were scrambling to buy every masterpiece. Many wealthy people followed suit and entered the fierce competition and wanted their collections more antiques.
Thus, the Egyptian heritage fell in the first half of the nineteenth century in the hands of intruders on scientific research, who aimed to find antiques in the shortest time and at the lowest costs. These can only be described as tomb looters and antiquities vandals, led by the Italian Giovanni Belzoni of the year ( 1778-1823), whose father hoped to make him a priest, but (that is, the son) soon became a rioter who pursued justice, so he fled to London and was able to join a circus in which he displays his supernatural strength with which he can carry on his shoulder some men He roams them among the spectators.
It seems that he hated his work in the circus. His mind concluded that the profit would come to him if he went to Egypt, where its people raise water with shading. He made himself that they would accept to buy a machine that could feed their lands with irrigation water easily and quickly, so he arrived in Egypt in 1815 as an agent For one of the English companies to promote its irrigation machines. Still, soon he was guided to another more rewarding job, which is the discovery of antiquities, and was encouraged by the English Consul “Salt”, so he began collecting everything that he saw, starting from scarabs to the obelisk, and took He digs and excavates everywhere and worked at first for the English consul. Still, after five years, he worked for his own account and was a saboteur who did not leave a place without coming to its contents. He only cares about precious antiques, destroying everything else; this is how Giovanni Belzoni managed to involve himself in the excavation work and expand it as he wants. wol
It seems that he hated his work in the circus. His mind concluded that the profit would come to him if he went to Egypt, where its people raise water with shading. He made himself that they would accept to buy a machine that could feed their lands with irrigation water easily and quickly, so he arrived in Egypt in 1815 as an agent For one of the English companies to promote its irrigation machines. Still, soon he was guided to another more rewarding job, which is the discovery of antiquities, and was encouraged by the English Consul “Salt”, so he began collecting everything that he saw, starting from scarabs to the obelisk, and took He digs and excavates everywhere and worked at first for the English consul. Still, after five years, he worked for his own account and was a saboteur who did not leave a place without coming to its contents. He only cares about precious antiques, destroying everything else; this is how Giovanni Belzoni managed to involve himself in the excavation work and expand it as he wants.
Bad luck wanted this man to excavate in the Valley of the Kings and found some royal tombs, among them the tomb of Seti I, the most beautiful and most spacious, and the transfer of her huge coffin made of a huge block of alabaster stone to London, this happened in October 1817 And only a few months later, that is, in March 1818, we see him entering the second pyramid built by Khafre, wandering through its corridors, and reaching the burial chamber there.
It seems that the success of the English consul “Salt” and his client “Belzoni” had reached such an extent that the French consul at that time, whose name was “Drovne”, also participated in the fray, and began excavations, so he hired agents working for him, headed by “Frederic Caillou”, The competition intensified between the two teams, each trying to win the most important areas that herald the discovery of important artefacts.
Often, the members of the two groups joined forces, and the edge of arms played an important role in resolving the conflict between them. Thus the piracy activities continued in the field of searching for antiquities, and their period was long. I wish the matter were limited to that. Still, the government apparatus participated in that era with the authority and power available to destroy the existing Egyptian monuments without an account. For example, one of the books “Description of Egypt” paintings included a creative depiction of the family’s temple for King “Amenhotep III”. The eighteenth century was based on the island of Elephantine in Aswan. It still retained its complete entity, but it did not escape shortly after that from the tyranny of the sultan’s owners, so they destroyed it to the fullest, and the director of Aswan used his stones in 1822 to construct one of the official buildings in the city. This temple was like a temple Another in the city of Armant was used to house the machines of the first sugar-refining factory. Thus its important inscriptions were lost, and we lost a beautiful monument dating back to the ancient Roman era. There is an unfortunate story, which is the story of the ancient city of Ashmounin, which was contemporary to civilization in all its stages and one of the most colourful and richest ancient Egyptian cities. The First World War and its aftermath, and it is known that the huge quantities of papyrus that appeared at that time were used as fuel for the people of this region, and thus lost knowledge of an endless repertoire of documents that, if they remained for us, would have provided us with much information and shed light on the history of Egyptian civilization in its late era.
The cries of scholars began to resound and call for establishing an Egyptian Antiquities Department to preserve Egypt’s antiquities and prevent them from the hands of vandals and demand the construction of a museum of antiquities and artefacts and to rid them of the looting of pirates who multiplied in Egypt. Their only concern is to export its treasures to Europe to fill its museums. These cries began with an official request submitted by him Champollion to Muhammad Ali in 1829, calling for an antiquities department. However, Muhammad Ali, unfortunately, did not pay any attention to this note. It remained neglected until 1835 when he remembered to use it for a purely personal purpose because a personal enmity broke out between Muhammad Ali and the French Consul “Memo”, and this consul used to collect. Export masterpieces To the Louvre Museum and the Wali of Egypt knew this hobby, so he took out Champollion’s note and ordered the establishment of a department and a museum to take care of Egyptian antiquities, but this matter did not take a clear executive form, and soon became irrelevant when it exhausted its real purpose, which is to establish official obstacles in front of Memo.
In any case, the employees of this department began collecting some of the archaeological artefacts and storing them in a small house near Azbakia, which they called “the Museum.” However, in reality, it was no more than a storehouse from which they could choose gifts that the governor of Egypt requested from time to time to present. To his foreign visitors, who did not deserve to win a gift of valuable material value in his view.
And the situation continued like this until 1849 when the people of the matter needed this house, so they moved what remained of it to a small room in the castle. It remained stacked in it until Archduke Maximilian of Austria visited Egypt during the Said era in 1855. Said got rid of this group (which is the rest in the state estate) and gave it all to the great visitor, who hastened to take it with him to his country, where it is still until now the largest part of the Vienna Museum.
Archduke Maximilian’s seizure of the rest of the antiquities and antiquities in possession of the Egyptian government was a severe blow that angered the French scholars, who undoubtedly wished to obtain them. Ferdinand de Lesseps and Nubar intervened at that time. They asked Said something strange: on the occasion of a visit, The French Prince Napoleon of Egypt must also win a precious gift of Egyptian antiquities if it does not outperform the collection obtained by Archduke Maximilian, it must be similar to it.
And since Egypt’s balance of discovered artefacts has completely run out, it must immediately start making large-scale excavations at the state’s expense, provided that one of the archaeologists choose to carry them out. These excavations remain until antiques are found worthy of the great visitor. Then the sand falls on them again. Another is revealed again in the presence of Prince Napoleon himself, and their choice fell on a young scientist employed as a curator at the Louvre Museum, “Auguste Marit”.
Marit was born in 1821 in the city of Boulogne and began his working life by being appointed as a teacher in 1843 at the secondary school in his same city, and then commissioned to arrange the memoirs of one of the scientists who accompanied Napoleon to Egypt, his name was “Nestor Lahout”, and perhaps the relationship between them is what qualified “Marit”. In any case, this was the first contact between him and ancient Egypt to do this work. Soon he became passionate about it and began studying and studying based on what his French compatriot “Champillion” wrote. In 1849 he was appointed assistant curator of the Louvre Museum. After he wrote a good article about The list of kings, the scholar Brice Daphne had transferred from Karnak to the Royal Library in Paris. One year after his appointment in the Louvre, he travelled to Egypt, delegated by the Museum, to purchase some documents written in the Coptic language. Marit arrived in Egypt in 1850 and saw the wonder in it. He found a group of claimants of knowledge excavating here and there and finding the most important and most beautiful artefacts and immediately exporting them to their countries, and not only the claimants of knowledge, but also found that a group of tourists who were going to Egypt for a picnic and recreation, almost fell to the ground with their feet until they were dazzled by what it contains traces. They do their part in searching for them and take with them what they can get from them. Indeed, there has been complete chaos in searching for antiquities, and perhaps the funniest thing that has been said in this regard is that Egypt has set up a place where its antiquities are sold by auction. “Marit” forgot his first goal, and he also began searching for antiquities. He found the serapeum in Saqqara in 1852 and finding it was a sensation in the world. Then he also found the tomb of “T” near the serapeum. Of course, his activity extended to more than one place, and he returned to his country after spending nearly five years in Egypt, carrying countless quantities of the most important and valuable antiques to the Louvre. He was rewarded for this by being promoted in 1855 to the curator of the Louvre Museum.
We go back to 1855, in which Archduke Maximilian visited and obtained from Said a large collection of antiquities as a gift to him. Then, De Lesseps and Nubar submitted a request to treat Prince Napoleon in reciprocity on his expected visit to the governor of Egypt. They suggested that Marit” with extensive excavations until he found important artefacts worthy of the French visitor’s position. It is known about Saeed’s weakness of will and his lack of firmness, and his absolute confidence in foreigners, so he could not contradict them with an opinion or respond to them a request. It is also known that he was At that time, he seeks to ensure the support of France against Turkey on the one hand, and England on the other hand, as well as his friendship with Delesbes and his falling under his personal influence. It is not surprising, then, if the aforementioned request was answered immediately, and «Marit» was summoned urgently, All material and administrative capabilities were put at his disposal to implement the project, and a steamer named “Samanoud” was allocated to him to facilitate his movements on the Nile from the north to the south of the country.
Strangely, «Marit» began excavation and excavation work in many places far apart in the length and breadth of the country, so he distributed his workers to the following areas: Giza – Saqqara – Abydos – Karnak – Draa Abu al-Naga necropolis on the western shore of Thebes, then Elephantine Island in Aswan, meaning that Another chose the most important archaeological areas in Egypt, and we are now astonished by the boldness of «Marit», and we are astonished by his method as an archaeologist who begins excavations in six separate areas, how he can supervise them and write down his scientific observations about them, and determine the place of detection for each piece, the conditions of finding it and the means of identifying its age.
There is no doubt that Marit, like the people of his time working in antiquities, was passionate about searching for precious things first of all. He rarely completed a work he started as long as he fulfilled his goal, and he did not care about recording the details, nor did he publish the results of his full findings. Indeed, some of them were not published at all, and they did not estimate in their work what accurate information that future research will need surrounding the impact when it is revealed.
Marit’s task in itself was not easy, as he was met with a storm of bitter protest by pretenders to search for antiquities, and they set up endless obstacles in his face and accused Saeed of being lenient in the rights of his country and its ancient heritage, just as they accused Marit of not searching for antiquities. Rather, he studies the strategic locations in the country as he set about France’s invasion of the land of Egypt. It was effortless for Saeed – and we know what we know about his weakness of will – to cancel Marit’s activity. Still, as we said, he was under the influence of De Lesseps, as he coveted France’s support and was waiting Very well at the hands of Prince Napoleon. The latter was planning at that time to visit Egypt.
“Marit” proceeded in the implementation of his project, ignoring the attempts of his enemies to destroy it. His excavations were, in fact, a catastrophe for science and a burden on those engaged in Egyptian studies, as he did not leave for them accurate diaries revealing the circumstances of the impact when it was revealed. He did not collect all the antiquities found in his excavations but left the wheat and seized the fat ones, and the result was that we lost all the valuable information that could have been obtained if he had followed a sound scientific method. Days passed, and months rolled by, and Marit digs and digs, searching for artefacts worthy of Prince “Napoleon” and suitable as a gift for him. Still, the winds come with what ships do not desire, as Saeed and Marit were surprised by the prince’s apology for his trip to Egypt, so Marit’s mission ended. He became obligated He should stop his strange activity in searching for antiquities. He was also supposed to return to his job at the Louvre. Still, he was slow to return and submitted a formal request to Saeed, insisting that he prepare a gift from the discovered antiquities and send it to Prince Napoleon in Paris. The news of this endeavour reached the prince. He sent a gentle letter to Marit on March 25, 1858, thanking him for his good feelings and thought of sending the promised gift. He added the following: “The French government is pleased to inform the governor of Egypt that if he thinks of asking a French archaeologist, To supervise the establishment of a museum of Egyptian antiquities, she will undoubtedly choose someone for this task but you.”
Marit hurried as soon as this letter reached him and presented it to Said. He was not satisfied with that but rather convinced him of the necessity of establishing a museum of Egyptian antiquities and an interest in preserving the heritage of ancient Egypt. He used the influence of De Lesseps and was finally able to succeed in his endeavour. It actually happened that Said issued on the first of In June of 1858, a decree appointed Marit to the position of “commissioner of antiquities works” with an annual salary of 18,000 francs (720 pounds), provided that Said would cover the expenses of excavation work from his own pocket according to work needs, and Marit began quickly establishing an antiquities museum to be transferred to him The antiquities that had accumulated throughout the country as a result of his extensive excavations. When he could not persuade Saeed to build a museum worthy of this goal, he contented himself with a small building originally used as a post office and then abandoned later while he was in Bulaq on the eastern bank of the Nile. It consists of an external courtyard, and its entrance leads to a small vestibule that follows it. A large vestibule connects to four halls of medium width.
Really, we do not have to complain about the Bulaq Museum, as it was the first nucleus of that huge museum, the Egyptian Museum, whose contents exceeded one hundred thousand pieces, and which is considered as the source to which every scholar interested in Egyptian studies intends to draw from it abundant information, and to which every admirer of our ancient heritage makes a pilgrimage.
The Bulaq Museum started as small and small, but its name has remained on the people’s tongues and has been passed down through generations until our time, as some still send their letters to the Egyptian Museum, calling it the Bulaq Museum. It is interesting to know that Marit quickly put up a guide to this small museum.
This guide is in 176 pages of small pieces. The number of artefacts described in it amounted to 127 pieces; some are like statues numbers because each piece took one number. Others put the number on the wheel that contains more than one piece, and I have chosen here two prominent examples of the examples described in this guide, the first being the “Statue of Sheikh Al-Balad,” and the second, “Queen Iah Hotep’s Ornaments.” Both examples are considered among the most important and most famous exhibits of the Egyptian Museum.
The reason that calls me to transfer the description in this guide about each of the two pieces is to highlight what science was saying about the masterpiece from the technical and scientific point of view on the one hand, and then the prevailing style in that era on the other hand. This parable shows us the false theories that prevailed in the early era of Egyptian studies. Marit identified the era to which the statue of “Sheikh al-Balad” belongs, in the early fourth dynasty, as he said that it precedes the era of “Khafre” by a period ranging between one hundred and two hundred years, While the Egyptian archaeologists now date him in the early Fifth Dynasty. Marit was completely ignorant of the goal for which the greats of Egypt and its senior men were placing “personal” statues in their tombs and that they saw in them an alternative to their bodies. The rule is that the statue’s features be a mirror image of the features of its owner. Otherwise, the purpose of making these statues, which are now called “Ka statues, ” will be lost.
As for the other example, which is related to the jewellery of Queen Ahhotep, the wife of King Seven-Ra, one of the heroes of the war of liberation against the Hyksos, and from the pharaohs of the seventeenth dynasty, and comment on this explanation:
The ancient Egyptians firmly believed in life after death and that this life would not be upright unless the individual provided himself with everything he used in the life of the first world. Undoubtedly, the queen’s jewellery was one of the most important things that she was keen on and provided herself with. In her tomb, the finding of the aforementioned tomb of Queen Ahhotep is accompanied by a funny story. At that time, the director of Qena was impressed by the precious treasure that Marit had found in the sarcophagus of the queen, so he quickly confiscated it in Marit’s absence, put it in a box that was officially closed, and sent it as a personal gift from him to Said, and the ship sailed with this box to Alexandria, where Said was staying at that time. When Marit learned of this incident, he went crazy and got on a steamboat and hurried behind the ship until he caught up with it, boarded it, confiscated the box, relied on his job, and insisted on delivering it himself in Alexandria.
Interestingly enough, Marit, who thought that he would be met with a harsh wave of anger from Saeed, only received high laughter and happiness that filled his heart, as Saeed considered this incident more funny than dangerous, and even left the box with its precious contents to Marit to keep it in his museum. It was an irreplaceable opportunity that Marit seized and insisted In building a museum to accommodate the antiques that began to multiply on the sides of the small Bulaq Museum, which narrowed its four rooms, and Saeed promised him to fulfil his desire, even if this promise was never fulfilled during his reign.
Marit has a great place in our souls, and we do not forget his famous favour. When an exhibition was held in Paris in 1867, he commissioned Marit to set up a pavilion for Egyptian antiques transferred to him from the Bulaq Museum, so he mastered beautifying it and making it look like an Egyptian temple. The Egyptian pavilion was the most beautiful thing in the exhibition. Its exhibits were the most valuable, and people flocked to it and admired it with great admiration. The French still remembered Said’s precious gift to Archduke Maximilian of Egyptian antiques, but rather the gift that Said promised Prince Napoleon when he visited him. The country, and the precious group that Marit had prepared to present to him after he cancelled his visit to Egypt, and they believed that there was an opportunity to make up for what they had missed, especially since Ismail was closer to them and more flattering to them than Said, and they plotted a conspiracy that history had not heard of, as they commissioned the Emperor “Eugenie” to request The Egyptian collection displayed in the exhibition, to be preserved by France after its completion and handed over to the Louvre Museum, but Marit refused outright and insisted on returning the artefacts to Egypt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marit died on January 18, 1881. His body was buried in a coffin erected at first in the courtyard of the Bulaq Museum, then moved in front of the entrance to the Giza Museum, and finally settled on the southwestern side of the current museum courtyard. The Egyptian government erected a statue of him from alabaster designed by The French example, Boyce, spent a thousand Egyptian pounds on it and received it in 1903.
Marit died, and the Egyptian law did not contain a single article regulating the affairs of antiquities, and the matter was a mess; everyone had the right to dig and stumble and carry with him what he had found is interesting to know that the first law issued related to antiquities was the one that was issued on December 18, 1881, regarding the formation of a committee under the chairmanship of the General Superintendent of Endowments to preserve ancient Arab antiquities. Still, the mission of this committee was to preserve Islamic antiquities only. The first law on Egyptian antiquities was issued on May 16, 1883, and then issued on November 17, 1891, prohibiting excavation without a license from the Director-General of the Museum and Excavation House. This law stipulates, according to its second article, that all objects can be found by excavation. It shall be the government’s property by force of law, and it should be preserved in the Antiques House in Giza. However, Article 4 of this law permits the following: The Antiquities Authority and the excavator divide the antiquities found in two parts in value and then cast lots for them unless it is preferred to share things in agreement with each other.
What is the fifth article? It allowed the Department the right to purchase any piece from the department related to the digger. If he refused, the Department might seize it after rewarding the digger in an amount that may not exceed the drilling expenses incurred for finding these items. On August 12, 1897, a law was issued that punishes those who dig in government land without a permit. Still, the punishment was light and not a deterrent, as the first article stipulated: that he be punished with a fine of fifty piasters to one hundred piasters and imprisonment from 3 days to a week!
And the situation continued like this until Law No. 14 of 22 articles was issued on June 12, 1912, regulating an article that organized all the affairs of antiquities from preserving them and preventing excavation without a license and trafficking in antiquities. The expulsion of antiquities to other countries and this law also increased the penalty to imprisonment for a period not exceeding one year: a fine not exceeding one hundred pounds or these two penalties.
After Marit’s death, Masbro took over the administration of the Egyptian Antiquities Authority, i.e. in 1881.
Masbro is considered one of the largest Egyptian archaeologists, as he was very knowledgeable and in-depth in his research. He did not leave any aspect of Egyptian civilization that he did not write about. From two hundred and fifty authors, many of them are still reliable references to this day.
Masprom took from the first day he took over the museum’s affairs, urging those in authority in Egypt to arrange another spacious place worthy of Egyptian artefacts after the Bulaq Museum narrowed with its antiquities. It did not become a place for afoot, but his efforts and urgency were in vain, and he resigned in 1886. He was succeeded by Gribo, who was able to transfer The museum moved from its place in Bulaq to a large Saray owned by Ismail in Giza, and the new museum was opened in January 1890. It seems that the opening took place quickly so that Gribeau was unable to display the antiques except in forty-five of the ninety-one halls, which were contained in the elegant palace. Grebeau continued as director of the department until 1892 and was succeeded by the famous French scholar de Morgan, who was able to coordinate all the halls and fill them with antiquities in a short period of time. De Morgan continued until 1897 and then was succeeded by Loret until 1899; Masbro returned to antiquities in 1899. It seems that his return was accompanied by a serious effort to build a new museum after it became clear that the Giza Palace was not fully fit to fulfil the purposes for which it was allocated. Its many halls and halls, its most dilapidated parts were, and the Egyptian government was forced to think seriously about establishing a house for the museum that really suits its wonderful contents. At that time, she was able to obtain approval to take the necessary money from the debt fund, and immediately announced throughout Europe his intention to build a large museum in Cairo, and appointed a place for it on the eastern bank of the Nile and to the north of the Nile Palace Saray at that time, and she eventually chose it. On the engineering design submitted by a French engineer named Dortion and celebrated his receipt in January 1902, after the building and its accessories and the transfer of antiquities to it cost about a quarter of a million Egyptian pounds, and Masbro continued to head the Antiquities Authority and its Museum until 1914 and succeeded Lako and continued until 1936. Drioton came and stayed until the revolution in 1952. The affairs of the interest were taken over for the first time in its history; an Egyptian scholar, Mustafa Amer, remained in his position until 1956.
In his era, antiquities interests were unified, so the Department of Conservation of Arab Antiquities joined the Antiquities Department, and all archaeological museums were also integrated into the new department.
After establishing the Bulaq Museum, about a century and a half ago, Egypt is facing the same problem: the accumulation of antiquities and antiquities in the Cairo Museum. This, of course, resulted in a material impossibility to follow modern display methods and conduct periodic cultural exhibitions displaying antiquities that highlight a particular aspect of it—ancient Egyptian civilization. Many wonderful antiques are stored in the “basement” of the museum or in the department’s inspection warehouses, which must be displayed and highlighted in a framework that makes scholars and those interested in Egyptian civilization reach it and pay attention to it with study and scrutiny.