Edfu Temple, Egypt
Edfu is a city in the north of Aswan Governorate in Egypt. It is the second-largest city in Aswan governorate, south of Luxor. The ancient Egyptian cemeteries discovered it. The temple was built in the Ptolemaic era of the god Horus. The city is connected to many cities in the Nile Valley. Marsa Alam is a wild road that increases its commercial activity. Most of the cities are located on the bank of the western Nile. It is surrounded by many villages east and west of the Nile River. Edfu was the legendary battle site between the god Horus and the idol of six. Horus was the first idol.
Among the ancient Egyptian temples, the great temple of Edfu is known as the Temple of Horus, the most beautiful and largest, the second largest temple of ancient Egypt after the temple of Karnak. Edfu temple is located in the city of Edfu. It extends the temple on the West Bank of the River Nile, away from him by a distance of 1300 meters, French archaeologist Auguste Mairet in 1860, where this temple was buried in the soil …..
The construction of this temple took 180 years. It was built in the reign of King Ptolemy I in 237 before the birth of Christ. His decoration was completed in 57 BC and was officially opened in the year 42 BC. There are historical claims that the first temple was built In Edfu was designed by architect Amhotep, who designed the pyramid of Zoser listed in Saqqara and was an advocate of the worship of Horus. When the Ptolemaic came to Egypt, they decided to erect a huge temple of the god Horus on the ruins of the ancient temple. But wars prevented the completion of its construction quickly, so it was abandoned. The temple was built 180 years to the point that the building of its decoration was completed only during the reign of Ptolemy XIII years 57 BC ……..
It seems that the Egyptians’ treatment to build a great temple for the god they worshipped was a political goal of the Ptolemaic. This is evident from the design and engraving of the temple, which meant establishing a pure Egyptian temple on the Pharaonic model of the Egyptians. Some of the few elements, such as building the temple on high ground and the phenomenon of the gradual rise of the temple’s floor, where the floor rises as we go inward with the gradual decline of the ceiling. In the Roman era, the Temple of Horus was burned, and its walls smashed to obliterate the Ptolemaic rule.
There is an engraving on the facade depicting Ptolemy, who flattens enemies and offers sacrifices. There is also a statue of King Ptolemy inside the temple. The walls and columns contain a treasure trove of information about ancient life, their official and popular celebrations, feasts and many legends and tales, all through eloquent texts and inscriptions, outstanding and beautiful. It also includes the history of the temple and its details. Edfu Temple is about 137 meters long and 79 meters wide, and 36 meters high. The edifice is 68m long and 34m high. There is a great gate, and the door of this gate is made of cedarwood, which is decorated with bronze and gold and is topped by a sun disk, winged, representing a pyramidal.
The temple consists of a hall, a hall with columns and an open courtyard. In the edifice’s facade, two statues of Horus stand as a falcon, and the temple contains a large gate. The edifice follows an open courtyard surrounded by pillars on three sides, and in the middle, there was an altar to offer offerings. The temple hall has 12 columns representing the crowns of the forms of plants and is adorned with two granite statues of the god “Hawar Bahati” in the form of a hawk. After the lobby, the visitor goes to the lobby and the Holy of Holies at the last point of the temple. The temple has many vaults that were used to hide valuables. The temple is associated with the Nile through a small underground probe used to measure river water.