High Dam in Aswan, Egypt
The Aswan Dam, or the High Dam, is a water dam on the Nile River in southern Egypt. It was established during the era of President Gamal Abdel Nasser. The Soviets helped in building it. This dam helped a lot control the flow of water and mitigate the effects of the Nile flood. The High Dam to generate electricity in Egypt…
The length of the high dam is 3600 meters, the width of its base is 980 meters, the width of the summit is 40 meters, the height is 111 meters, and the volume of the dam body is 43 million cubic meters of cement, iron and other materials. A water flow of up to 11,000 cubic meters of water can pass through the dam—water per second.
The construction of the High Dam began in 1960, and the total cost was estimated at one billion dollars, a third of which was written off by the Soviet Union. 400 Soviet experts worked in building the dam, and it was completed in 1968; the last 12 electric generators were installed in 1970, and the dam was officially opened in 1971. But the High Dam reduced the fertility of the Nile. She did not compensate for the estuaries in Damietta and Ras El Bar with silt, which threatens to flood The delta after more than a hundred years, and due to some other factors such as global warming and the melting of ice in the north and south poles with a negative impact from the ozone layer. (He was born in 965 AD and died in 1029 AD). Who did not have the opportunity to implement his idea due to the lack of machinery needed to build it during his reign…
One of the positive effects of the High Dam is that it worked to protect Egypt from flooding and drought as well, as Lake Nasser reduces the rush of floodwaters and stores it for use in drought years.
The High Dam also worked to expand the agricultural area due to the availability of water and the expansion of land reclamation, and the increase of the agricultural area from 5.5 to 7.9 million acres. It also worked to grow more crops on the land due to the availability of water, which allowed three crops per year, and the expansion of the cultivation of crops need quantities. A large amount of water was used to irrigate it, such as rice and sugar cane. It also led to converting the cultivated areas under the basin irrigation system to the permanent irrigation system.
He also worked on generating electricity that benefited Egypt economically.
One of the negative effects of the High Dam is Lake Nasser, which flooded many Nubian villages in Egypt, most of them in northern Sudan, which led to the displacement of its people, with the so-called Nubian migration, and depriving the Nile Valley of the silt of the flood that nourishes the soil.
Some estimates indicate that the amount of evaporation in the waters of Lake Nasser behind the High Dam is huge, considering that it exposes a large area of ​​water to the sun in a very hot climate, and the size of the loss is estimated to be similar to Iraq’s share of the Euphrates River. In addition to the spread of some plants and their adaptation to new conditions and their contribution to the transpiration process, and thus more water loss