A wonderful tour
inside Luxor Temple
Luxor Temple is a large complex of the ancient Egyptian temples, located on the eastern bank of the Nile River in the city of Luxor known in the past as Thebes, and the axis of the temple extends from north to south and is parallel to the Nile, this temple was established in 1400 before the birth of Christ …….
The Luxor Temple was built to worship Amun-Ra, his wife Mut, and their son Khonsu, who are the gods called the Good Trinity, or (The Triad of Thebes). The Luxor Temple was built during the reign of the eighteenth dynasty kings and the nineteenth family. To each of the king “Amenhotep III” (1397-1360 BC) of the eighteenth dynasty, and the king, “Ramses II” (1290-1223 BC) of the nineteenth dynasty, as the interior parts of the Luxor temple belong to King Amenhotep III. The outer parts belong to King Ramses II, who added to the temple the open courtyard, the edifice and the two obelisks, and there are some names for different kings in the Luxor temple …
Where King “Tuthmosis III” (1490-1436 BC) set up shrines for visitors to the holy triad of Thebes Amun-Ra, his wife Mut, and their son Khonsu, and King Tutankhamun (1348-1337 BC) completed the inscriptions on the walls of the temple, which were destroyed The triple cabin, which was built before during the reign of Queen “Hatshepsut” and King “Thutmose III” (from the Eighteenth Dynasty). Then it was rebuilt during the reign of King Ramses II …….
* Naming the temple:
The ancient Egyptian used to call the Luxor temple “Ibet Raset” (meaning the southern sanctuary or the place of Amun-Ra), as the word Raset means south. There was a difference between scholars on the word Abt or Obet because the word Abet may refer to the name of the goddess “Abit “, Who used to take the form of a female hippopotamus, who was supervising the birth of the king in the other world in ancient Egyptian mythology, and this temple is one of the best-preserved and most beautiful Egyptian temples, and in it, the layout of the Egyptian temple is most clearly evident.
Entrance to the temple:
The entrance to the Luxor temple is the first tower, 24 meters (79 feet) high, built by King Ramses II, and the tower is decorated with scenes of Ramses’ military victories (especially the Battle of Kadesh); It also recorded the victories of the pharaohs at a later time, in particular the victories of the 25th Dynasty (Nubian Dynasty).
Description of the temple:
Sphinx Road:
There is this road in front of the facade of the Luxor Temple; a path paved with tiles; on both sides, there are statues in the form of the Great Sphinx representing King “Nakhtenebo” (from the kings of the Thirty Dynasty). , Which is comparable to the rams’ road in the Karnak temple, but the difference between this Luxor temple road and the Karnak temple road is that the statues of the Luxor temple are in the form of the Sphinx, while the Karnak temple statues are in the form of a ram in the face of Amun. Each of these statues was carved from a block. One of the sandstone embodies the body of a lion with King Nakhentenbo, and the statue was placed on a rectangular base whose dimensions are 120×330 cm. So far, 34 statues of Abu al-Houl have been uncovered on each side, and the aim of the construction of the Abu al-Houl Road is to determine the path of the royal procession and highlight its axis.
The temple obelisks:
The edifice of King Ramses II in Luxor Temple was advancing two obelisks made of pink granite stone, leaving only one obelisk, which is the eastern obelisk, its height is 22.52 meters, its base is 2.51 meters, it weighs 257 tons, and it is characterized by the presence of a group of prominent monkeys (four Monkeys) carved on its base. Muhammad Ali gifted the western obelisk to the King of France, and it is now in Place de la Concorde in Paris since 1836 AD. And it reaches a height of 22.84 meters and weighs 220 tons. On these two obelisks are recorded the name of King Ramses II and his titles with inscriptions Hieroglyphs, as was the king’s example on its top while offering the sacrifice to the god Amun. Perhaps the reason for the obelisk presence in front of the temple pylon may be in addition to being a symbol of the sun symbols to announce from far away from the place of the temple, especially since these obelisks have a pointed apse and were covered, most probably with a copper layer. Gilded to remain shiny.
The obelisk in general in the ancient Egyptian state symbolized the worship of the sun god Ra, according to the religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians. It is considered the oldest existing obelisk in its place until now. It is the obelisk of King Senusret I in Al-Matareya in Ain Shams.
King Ramses II stated:
The construction of King Ramses II, a huge gate with a place to install flagpoles, in the middle of this gate is the entrance to the temple. The width of this edifice is 65 meters, and the height is 24 meters, and the inscriptions on the face of the edifice on both sides describe the war battles that King Ramses carried out. The second was against the Hittites in the fifth year of his rule.
The right-wing of the edifice of King Ramses II (Western):
We see on this part of the edifice inscriptions representing King Ramses II and his military advisors (the scene is inscribed in the far north). In the centre, we see the site or camp where he defeated his enemies from the Hittites, and on the far right, we see the king in his war chariot in the middle of the battle.
The left-wing of the monument of King Ramses II (east):
On this side of the edifice are scenes representing King Ramses II in the Battle of Kadesh against the Hittites. We see King Ramses II in his war chariot throwing the Hittite enemies with a barrage of arrows. The ground is covered with the dead and wounded, while the living flees in panic and leave Kadesh, and in the far north on this wing is a scene. It depicts Prince Kadesh, frightened in his chariot.
There is a full description of this battle in the ancient Egyptian language (in the hieroglyphic inscription) in a poetic style found on the lower part of this edifice, and the text starts from the (right) western wing and ends on the eastern wing. On the front of the edifice, there are also four vertical gaps, two holes in each wing, which were designated for the flagpoles to be placed in them, and there are also four openings at the top of the edifice designated for these poles to be fixed in.
On the front of the Luxor temple in the edifice, there are 6 huge statues of King Ramses II, two of them on both sides of the entrance to the temple, representing King Ramses II seated, and the height of each statue is 6 meters. These two statues are of black granite. On each side of the facade, there are two statues of King Ramses. The second was standing, and these four statues are of pink granite. Most of these statues were broken, but the Egyptian state during the reign of President Sisi over the past three years restored them, put them in their places and returned them with their original design as they were in their form and place for thousands of years in a global event attended by most ambassadors Countries of the world.
As for the statues depicting King Ramses II sitting on the throne chair, King Ramses II is represented wearing the double crown, on both sides of the throne a scene representing the union of the two countries. On the side of the throne, a small statue of Queen Nefertari on the left side of the eastern statue, and the statue of the Queen on the right side. For the western statue, pictures of the prisoners and their names were engraved on their chests around the two statues’ bases.
It is known that the external views of the temples were war and military scenes, and the scenes inside the temples were religious views. At the end of the edifice from the top of the Luxor Temple, there is the Egyptian Cornish, and there is also the decoration of the khazana. There is an inscription of the winged sun disk. The northern side of the Luxor Temple overlooks the Karnak Temple from the back, as the view of the Luxor Temple has many military and military scenes of King Ramses II.
On both sides of the entrance from the outside, we see scenes representing King Ramses II in his various relations with the gods and goddesses according to ancient Egyptian beliefs, including the holy trinity of Thebes, in addition to the goddess Amont.
There are also scenes in the entrance from the inside dating back to King Shbako from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and is represented in front of the various deities. Behind the left tower from the inside, there are multiple views of King Ramses II and his wife Queen Nefertari with different deities. They participate in celebrating the feast of the god (Min) god Fertility in ancient Egyptian mythology.
The first courtyard:
The first courtyard of the Luxor Temple dates back to the reign of King Ramses II and is 57 meters long and 51 meters wide. The axis of this courtyard does not lie along the axis of the temple but rather deviates towards the east, perhaps to head towards the Karnak temple or to avoid the shrines built by Hatshepsut and Thutmose III in the current place The courtyard of Ramses II is surrounded by the characteristics that each roof rows on two rows of masters, except for the building built by Hatshepsut and Thutmose III, which is located to the right of the interior.
In this courtyard, there are two rows of columns, consisting of 74 cylinders, in the form of papyrus plants and ending with crowns in the form of papyrus buds, and between the front columns in the southern half of this open courtyard are statues of King Ramses II, some of which are represented by standing (11 statues), including those represented by sitting ( Two statues) We see on both sides of the entrance leading to the great corridor built by Amenhotep III, two huge statues representing Ramses II seated on the throne who were decorated with scenes representing the Nile divine in ancient Egyptian mythology. They confirm the unity between the two faces by linking the papyrus plant, the symbol of the north, and the lotus plant, the symbol of the south. On this courtyard is the name of “the Temple of Ramesso of Eternity.”
The walls of this spacious courtyard are adorned with different scenes representing sacred offerings alongside scenes representing defeated foreign peoples. One of the most important scenes that must be seen in the courtyard is the view on the southwestern wall. The view here represents the entire façade of the Luxor Temple, i.e. the edifice with its six statues, flags and obelisks. To the right of ( The beholder), we see a procession led by the princes of the sons of Ramses II, followed by the fat sacrifices decorated with cattle that would be sacrificed, most likely these sacrifices were an offering to the gods, according to ancient Egyptian beliefs (the continuation of the scene we see on the western wall).
Abu Al-Hajjaj Mosque:
There is the Abu Al-Hajjaj Mosque in the first courtyard of the Luxor Temple, which is a suspended mosque because the Luxor Temple is close to the Nile, which made the Nile mud bury the Luxor Temple. This mosque was built over the Luxor Temple in the Fatimid era. Still, after the excavations, the mosque became suspended and is like the hanging church Built over Fort Papillion. This shows the impact and its disappearance with the change of soil.
Even now, there is the birth of Abu Al-Hajjaj. The strange thing about the Luxor temple is that it has an Islamic and a Christian trace, as there is a large part of the temple that was turned into a church. The birth of Abu Al-Hajjaj represents the procession that used to happen to the idol Amun but in the Islamic style.
Entrance to Amenhotep III:
After the simply and understandably with 14 cylinders, which consists of two rows of squares, each row has 7 squares, which take the shape of an open wild plant, and this passage goes back to King Amenhotep III and some other kings, and on the western wall of this corridor is a view of the boat of King Amenhotep III, which is It is carried on the shoulders of the priests and the view of the boat of deities Mut, Khonsu and Hathor. In front of this procession, there is a division of the army and the police with weapons.
On the eastern wall of this corridor, there is a scene depicting the god Amun’s boat. Below it, the boat of the goddess Mut, then a scene depicting the rest of the boats on their return from the temple of Karnak, and King Amenhotep III was depicted in a large size while standing and offering water and incense as an offering to the gods.
The court of King Amenhotep III:
This courtyard is a large courtyard with 64 cylinders in the form of papyrus. This courtyard was used in various celebrations.
Columns Hall:
It consists of a hall with 32 cylinders. This hall was called the Hall of Transfiguration and Illumination, where the deity Amun used to shine when he left the Holy of Holies. Most of the scenes of this hall were smashed, and there is a scene depicting the various regions of Egypt and another view of King Amenhotep III in front of the good gods. There are two entrances in this hall, each leading to any small shrine of the deity “Khonsu” and the goddess “Mut.”
After the colonnade, there is a small hall with 8 columns removed in the Roman era, and I bet there is another hall with 4 columns in front of the sacred boat room. More than 40 scenes representing King Amenhotep the Third and offerings to the gods are inscribed on its walls.
Divine birth room:
The divine birth room is located in the east of the second half, and King Amenhotep the Third was the son of King Tuthmosis the Fourth. He did not have the right to inherit the throne from his father, Thutmose IV, because he was from a mother who was no,t a royal, and she was the princess “The Death of Moya”. Therefore, King Amenhotep, the Third was He needs some propaganda because the royal blood does not flow in his veins, so King Amenhotep III invented the story of the divine birth, and in this room, we find scenes of the birth of King Amenhotep III, the sacred from his mother, considering the idol Amun is his father and not King Thutmose IV.
And King Amenhotep III imitated the story of the divine birth that Queen Hatshepsut performed in the Deir el-Bahari temple when she was the first woman to do the divine birth story.
Alexander the Great’s cabin:
This cabin is a room inside a large room built by Alexander the Great to rest the sacred complex of the god Amun. In this cabin, scenes depict Alexander the Great with different Egyptian deities, and on the side, two rooms may have been used as stores for the temple.
The long hall:
This hall is a long hall containing 12 cylinders, and there are scenes related to fertilization and views related to the solar cycle that takes place in 12 hours for the day and 12 hours for the night, and on the wall, there are views of the boat of the sun.
Holy of Holies :
The Holy of Holies is the least in the Luxor Temple, and it is the most important part of the temple. And the Holy of Holies consists of three dark rooms and the middle room was dedicated to the idol Amun, and there are in the Holy of Holies scenes depicting King Amenhotep III as he makes offerings to the holy Theban trinity (Amon – Mut – Khonsu)