The symbolism of the dog and the jackal in ancient Egypt
A fierce animal, sharp-tempered, attracted by the smell of carrion, so that he described a grave-scavenger, its connection to the world of the dead and its access to rotting corpses, linking its name to the world of mythology, which made the ancient Egyptian sanctify it and raise it to the highest position that an animal could reach, so he lined up with the gods, and became a symbol of God Anubis.
That animal was nothing but the Egyptian wolf, one of the carnivores from the ancient world. It was known since pre-dynastic times as “jackal”. Archaeologists found a number of its mummies wrapped in linen in the excavations of the Badari civilization, dating back to 4 thousand years BC. It is considered the oldest indication of reverence for that animal since the Chalcolithic period in Egypt. Simple sketches of it appeared on the pottery of the first Naqada civilization, which extends from 3900 to 3600 BC, and in the Naqada II, civilization extends between the years 3600. And until 3200 BC, he explicitly took the form of an idol, where amulets were found depicting him as an idol in the eastern delta and Naqada. At the end of the Naqada III era, he was associated with the monarchy and appeared within the brigades of deities inscribed on the scorpion and Narmer funnels.
When the ancient Egyptians in ancient Pharaonic times noticed the habits of that wolf towards corpses, they feared the inability to resurrect and reach the afterlife, so they took it as a symbol of the god Anubis, the god of death and mummification, protector of tombs, and was usually depicted in the form of a man with a wolf head, wearing scarves He holds the key to life in his hands. However, he is golden in colour; the ancient Egyptians used to colour his head black because it represents the darkness of death. In the ancient Greek civilization, Jackal appeared in the form of the god “Hermes”, the messenger of the Greek gods, and the second smallest of the gods “Olymp” and the god of sailors. Also, he appeared in the image of the mythical beast called the “Devil of the Pit”. There are also tribes in India who are happy when a child is born with his head, a limb that resembles the horn that the females of that golden wolf possess, believing that he has good luck in life, as mentioned the jackal In the Bible, several times, he is described as an evil creature. Psalm 63 describes that unbelievers will become food for jackals.
It is strange that his myths still exist in some places as it does in India. It is the largest type of “jackals” and the only one that spreads outside the continent of Africa, of its 12 subspecies. However, genetic studies have shown that it is not closely related to jackals types. It is A mammal of the Canidae family that is not threatened with extinction; it is widespread in northern and eastern Africa, in southeastern Europe, and southern Asia, even in Myanmar, which is known as “Burma”. It is called by many names, including the Asian jackal and the eastern jackal. It was also known in the Levant as “the wolf”, while in the middle of Europe, specifically in “Hungary”, it was called the Austro-Hungarian wolf or the red wolf.
The golden jackal’s dependence on its food is mainly on carrion. Still, it may prey on some domesticated animals such as cattle and poultry or steal the remains of other predatory animals such as lions and tigers belonging to the genus of tigers, and usually hunters alone, although sometimes joining constituents From 2 to 5 wolves. The strong sense of hearing and smell helps him to track his small and medium-sized prey, from hares, rodents, birds, insects, fish, deer and black antelope, and he can hunt prey larger than him, which may reach 5 times its size, such as donkeys And horses.
Dog in ancient Egypt
The Pharaonic dog is one of the oldest dog breeds, and it is native to ancient Egypt,
Where it was used to hunt antelope and other game,
Similar dogs were found on the walls of the tomb of Pharaoh Antiv II, dating back to 2300 BC.
In the sixteenth century BC, the Phoenicians brought a Pharaonic dog to the island of Malta, where it was settled until modern times.
Pharaonic dogs are smooth dogs, their length is between 53 and 70 cm at shoulder height, and they weigh between 15 and 23 kg. Its fur is short, flat, shiny, whitish brown, or red.
Pharaonic dogs have white toes on the foot, and their chest is white, drawing like stars, and the tip of their whip-like tail is also white, and many pharaonic dogs have a white line above the middle of the face.
The colour of the pharaonic dogs turns red when excited, meaning that their nose, and their upright ears, change from normal to dark pink.
The eyes of the Pharaonic dogs are in an unusual amber colour. Pharaonic dogs were famous for using the sense of sight and smell in hunting, and they move with speed and grace, and their bite is strong.
 Connect the dogs
The dogs were originally from Iran and descended from the Asian wolf after it mixed with the wild dog breed, which completely disappeared from the globe’s surface. This mixing and the appearance of dogs took place about 10 thousand years ago. And the dogs belong to the phylum Chordata, the semi-vertebrates, the class of mammals, the order of carnivores, the canine family, and includes foxes, wolves, jackals, and dogs.
Kennel club
Fossils indicated the existence of dog-like families from 90,000 years ago in Siberia and Scotland. The American Kennel now recognizes 400 dog breeds. The first Egyptian association for dog breeding and purification of the strains of these pets was declared and the disposal of stray street dogs by a scientific method of compassionate animal sterilization away from killing by bullets, poisoning, genocide, or beating and international recognition Egyptian breeds of dogs and participation in the International Dog Breeding Federation in Belgium. The association seeks to sponsor and promote the Egyptian breeds and register them internationally. We only have the “Armenian” dog, as some countries have managed to use ancient Egyptian breeds and register them internationally under the name of the national breed of their country. Therefore, the association is responsible for registering our breed in the International Federation and promoting Her universally.
Many dogs were photographed in the past, as in the cemetery of Antef II of the family of 11 at Thebes. The tomb of “Antef II” was mentioned in the “Abbott” papyrus (Pap. Brit. Mus. 10221), known as the “Tomb robbery papyrus.” He is the owner of the famous painting found near his tomb, which is housed in the Egyptian Museum, and it is a painting that represents him standing and with him five of his dogs that bore Libyan names. In the sixteenth century BC, the Phoenicians took dogs with them to the island of Malta.
1- Ibizan
This ancient dog Ibizan was photographed in ancient Egyptian tombs, and it is a hunting dog. The Phoenician and Libyan merchants took him on a ship to the Spanish Balearic Islands. He was named after their island and was officially recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1979. One of the smartest dog species – active, attentive – an athlete who loves movement a lot – is fit as a guard dog due to his attention and strength of his senses. Please pay close attention to him and put him in place with high fences to jump to high heights as he is known for climbing trees !!! They are hunting dogs that rely heavily on the sense of sight to locate their prey, along with the sense of smell and hearing.
2- The Saluki dog: Saluki, Royal Dog of Egypt, is a type of hunting dog and is considered one of the fastest animals after the cheetah, with a speed of approximately 80 km, and it is longer than a cheetah as it runs for long distances without getting tired, and it bears the trouble of chasing in various Circumstances, as it helps him to keep fluids in his body because he does not lose it through sweat (because dogs’ skins are devoid of skin pores, except for a little) that evaporates through the tongue and that is the secret of his constant panting in fatigue and comfort. And what is unique to the Saluki dog from the rest of the animals that are trained to hunt … that they all hunt for themselves, while the Saluki dog hunts for its owner unless extreme hunger drives him to the opposite, and he hunts alone or in a group. He is a friend of man … is familiar with prey from the bird Like a falcon, domesticates it, and helps it in its prey. If the hunter could combine a hunting dog with a trained falcon, that would be the best. This is no longer a great demand for the Saluki dog as it is in the past due to the many laws that do not allow hunting hares, deer and antelopes.
His qualities: cool-tempered – does not harm anyone – is very affectionate – obedient to her friend and does not turn away from him … quick to respond to what he wants – he suffices with a little amount of food – does not eat raw meat … because during training he gets used to that – if he catches his prey carry it to his owner Without touching anything from her.
3- Basenji dog: Basenji dog
It is a small African hunting dog from central Africa, which is the origin of the Baladi dog breed and reaches a height of 40.5-43 cm. And he belongs to an ancient dynasty with all the characteristics and appearances of the people of the desert. It has erect ears. They are often sandy yellow with white areas. Females give birth once a year. The blazing dog is the only one who cannot bark but makes a roaring sound.
4- The Pharaoh Hound
The Pharaonic dog is one of the oldest dog breeds, and its homeland is ancient Egypt, where it was used to hunt antelopes and other games. They are smooth dogs, their length is between 53 and 70 cm at shoulder height, and they weigh between 15 and 23 kg. Their fur is short, flat, glossy, whitish brown, or gunky red. Pharaonic dogs have white tips on the foot. The tip of their tail is similar to a whip, and many pharaonic dogs have a white line at the top of the middle of the face.
Pharaonic dogs were famous for using the sense of sight and smell in hunting, and they move quickly and gracefully, and their bite is powerful.
5- Whippet
Some of these dogs suffer from a genetic modification that leads to their overactive muscles, and they have been called the Bully Whippet.
The genetic mutation defect that some of these dogs suffer from made them double-muscled, meaning twice the muscle size of normal dogs of the same family.
It is not like other dogs where the abdominal muscles are divided into a group of six muscles. Wendy has 24 muscles in the abdomen.
6- Greyhound Hound Running Dog
Running Hound is considered the fastest dog.
There are traces of these dogs from 3500 years ago !!!
In the past, this species had taken place in daily life, as it indicated the elevation of its owner and as possessing the order evident in the great trade of the Egyptians. Today, this dog is used for hunting either rabbits or deer, thanks to its high speed. Running Hood reaches a height of 76 cm and weighs 32 kg, and this is lightweight in proportion to its height. His body structure suited to his function is a thin bone, light and long legs, a deep chest, and small paws, and his body is twisted with flexible muscles. Running Hound can run at a speed of 72 km / h !!! While running, this dog cuts through the wind like a knife more lightly and flexibly than any other type of dog.
A dog is a friend, not a dog friend
The analogy with dogs was mentioned in the noble Prophet’s hadith:
As the Prophet says and describes the Kharijites as dogs of the people of Hell) …
This is not an insult to dogs because the simile took its most beautiful attribute… which is (loyalty) …
As if he says they are loyal to the people of Hell.
Loyal as dogs who recruited them to betray their homelands … Loyal as dogs to their clients.