The ancient Egyptian calendar
Scholars of several contemporary or ancient Egyptian civilizations, such as the Persians, Greece, Romans and Arabs, tried to solve and quote the ancient Egyptian calendar. Still, they failed miserably, and other distorted calendars were born, such as the Hebrew, Julian, Coptic, Lunar or Hijri and Gregorian calendars..etc. All of them have serious flaws. It cannot alone date any historical event with an accurate history, which necessitated making many historical amendments to these calendars, the most famous of which is the amendment of Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 AD, which dropped ten whole days from the Julian calendar, and errors are still accumulating day after day to this day.
The ancient Egyptian calendar did not allow any error, even for one second over thousands of years, while the old Julian calendar had an error rate of one full day every 128 years. The Arabic Hijri calendar has a serious flaw: it does not coincide with the solar seasonal seasons and the error rate that reaches a full day due to its dependence on the vision.
The ancient Egyptians’ seasons, feasts, and historical events were synchronized solar, lunar, and astronomically in a fixed, decisive, and accurate way. The month of fasting, for example, was fixed seasonally and always comes on the shortest day of the solar year, which roughly corresponds to December now.. while we find that it is possible that the month of fasting now falls in June when the length of the day reaches its maximum. The temperature reaches the highest rates, which puts a heavy burden on the fasting people.
The following features characterize the ancient Egyptian calendar:
1 – It uses four-dimensional spherical astronomical coordinates.
2 – It uses the compound dual motion of the sun and moon, attributed to fixed astronomical elements.
3 – He uses the system of thirteen months for a year and seven days for a week.
4 – The first twelve months are fixed in length, which is 28 days per month. Each month consists of 4 weeks, and each week consists of 7 days.
5- The thirteenth month, called (the Sacred Month), is not fixed in its duration and extends between 2 to 7 weeks, with a maximum of 49 days.
6 – The Egyptian year always begins on Sunday (1), day 1 of the first week.
7- The Egyptian year always begins with Sham El-Nessim, which all Egyptians celebrated.
8 – The Egyptian year was always attributed to a fixed astronomical point, the day of the vernal equinox, which now corresponds to March 21.
9 – The day of the vernal equinox was determined by a simple method by measuring the length of the shadow.
10 – The Egyptian year had:
A – 336 days minimum
B – 385 days maximum
C – 365 solar days
D – 354 lunar days
The average sum of these four elements is the real length of the Egyptian year, and it is calculated as follows:
(336 + 385 + 365 + 354) / 4 = 360 days
Which represents an elaborate astronomical circle
Accordingly, the ancient Egyptian calendar works as follows:
1- Determine the day of the vernal equinox.
2- Determine the first full moon after the vernal equinox.
3 – I leave on the first Sunday.
4- The second Sunday after the full moon is the first day of the new year, Sham El-Nessim. It is also the first day of the first week of the New Year.
5- Count 12 months.. every month has 4 weeks. And every week has seven days.. until 48 weeks or 336 days have passed.
6- Month 13.. which is the sacred month. It begins with the beginning of week 49 and continues for several whole weeks (-3-4–7 weeks) until the next day of smelling the breeze, which should also be a Sunday based on the previous calculations.
7 – The cycle is repeated.
We note that the lunar months, which are twelve (12) months, fall within the scope of the astronomical year and cannot fall outside it. Still, they coincide seasonally with the sun’s movement and the movement of stars, which is the secret of the genius of the ancient Egyptian calendar. From this point of view, we find that the first day of the ancient Egyptian month of Muharram was seasonally synchronized with the solar calendar and always occurred with the sighting of the first crescent after Sham El-Nessim, that is, a few days after the beginning of the ancient Egyptian year. Thus, we see that the Egyptian solar year and the Egyptian lunar year were simultaneous. Scholars of several contemporary or ancient Egyptian civilizations, such as the Persians, Greece, Romans and Arabs, tried to solve and quote the ancient Egyptian calendar. Still, they failed miserably, and other distorted calendars were born, such as the Hebrew, Julian, Coptic, Lunar or Hijri and Gregorian calendars..etc. All of them have serious flaws. It cannot alone date any historical event with an accurate history, which necessitated making many historical amendments to these calendars, the most famous of which is the amendment of Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 AD, which dropped ten whole days from the Julian calendar, and errors are still accumulating day after day to this day.
The ancient Egyptian calendar did not allow any error, even for one second over thousands of years, while the old Julian calendar had an error rate of one full day every 128 years. The Arabic Hijri calendar has a serious flaw: it does not coincide with the solar seasonal seasons, in addition to the error rate that reaches a full day due to its dependence on vision.
The ancient Egyptians’ seasons, feasts, and historical events were synchronized solar, lunar, and astronomically in a fixed, decisive, and accurate way. The month of fasting, for example, was fixed seasonally and always comes on the shortest day of the solar year, which roughly corresponds to December now.. while we find that it is possible that the month of fasting now falls in June, for example, when the length of the day reaches its maximum. The temperature reaches the highest rates, which puts a heavy burden on the fasting people.