A complete explanation of the mummification process with pictures
Mummification is one of the secrets of the pharaohs
Mummification was an essential profession. The deceased people used to go to the mummified shops “house of purification” and pay the embalmed ones to embalm the body.
And Herodotus and Diodore of Sicily recorded an accurate description of this 70-day process
Mummification tools: –
1) Chisel: – They puncture the bone of the nose with it
2) The penis: – “peat” to withdraw the brain
3) The scalpel: To open an opening in the abdomen to extract the viscera
4) Scissors and needles: – for sewing openings in the abdomen
5) The brush: – To clean the abdomen
6) Canopic vessels: – Relative to “Canopus” in Abu Qir in Alexandria, which consists of four pottery vessels and sometimes of gold used to preserve the guts of the deceased, “the stomach, lungs, intestines and liver.” And in the modern state, the children of Horus were used to protect the bowels, and they:-
Snowf ugliness: in the form of a falcon and represents the idol “stole” and preserves the intestine
Duamotv, in the form of a jackal and, represents the deity “Nate” and preserves the equipment
Amste: a human body and represents the goddess “Isis” and preserves the liver
Habi: In the form of a monkey, it represents the deity “Nephthys” and protects the lungs
1 Natron salt: – It is a mixture of carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, which is very salty and is used to dry the body from the water
2 Lime: – To remove the skin
3 Cassia and Cinnamon: – It is a spice, and it is used as a filling in place
The viscera and has a pleasant smell
4 Palm Wax: – To cover the whole body of the pores
5 Cedar oil: – To paint the body
6 Henna: – To dye feet, nails, hands and hair
7 Juniper Love: – To protect the corpse
8 Onions: They are placed between linen rolls and symbolize resurrection and eternity
9 Iqr al-palm: – To wash the intonation of the body and the viscera
10 Resins: – Used as incense and as an adhesive for linen
11 flax: used to wrap mummies
12 filler mulch: – in body fillers
The steps of embalming
1- Washing the deceased with Nile water: – The deceased is placed on a wooden board “cleansing board”, remove his clothes and rub it with vegetable oils, then rinse it with Nile water.
2- Brain extraction: – And because the brain is a tissue that rots quickly, the Egyptians were keen to start extracting it first through drying and breaking the nasal bone.
3- Intestinal extraction: There are two reasons for viscera extraction
(The first reason) because it is a rotting tissue.
(The second reason) is a religious reason where there is a text written in it: “I did not kill any person, nor did I betray honesty, nor did I commit one of the deadly sins, but if I sinned in eating or drinking what is forbidden, then the sin was not my fault but rather the sin of this. Viscera “
And it was extracted from the left side of the abdomen. All the viscera was extracted except for the heart, where the heart was left for accountability in the court of Ozer and weighed in one hand and the feather of justice “Maat” in another pan, and if the weight of the heart was guilty and devoured it “generalized”, and sometimes A scarab heart is placed on him so that he does not say about his sins.
4- Sterilizing the body and the intestines: – Wash the intestines with water, palm wine and alcohol.
5- Mummification of the viscera: – Each part of it is placed in the salt of Natron to dry, then aromatic vegetable oils are placed on it, wrapped with linen and resin, then placed in canopic vessels, then in a coffin-like coffin of “Tutankhamun.”
6- Filling the body with temporary filling: – There are 3 types of fascia * Natron salt to absorb water, linen to absorb the water extracted, and linen containing aromatic materials.
7- Extraction and drying of body water: – It is the main process and depends on the salt of Natron in the embalming bed and takes 40 days, while the remaining 30 days are for prayer and recitation.
8- Extraction of temporary filling materials from the body: – After the 40 days, the temporary filling is removed because it is wet with water and can rot the whole body, and the permanent filling is placed in the place of the voids, which is a cloth of linen dipped in molten resin, and the body is painted with materials Aromatic “cedar oil, myrrh powder and cinnamon”. Then the body was applied again with the molten resin with a wide brush to block the body’s pores so that it would not be exposed to moisture. Then gold and jewellery were placed, and the body was wrapped with linen wraps. Each man was wrapped separately, then the two men together.